Ed's AV Handbook.com
Home Theater & High Fidelity Stereo Audio

Chapter Four
Video Reproduction

Page 1

Batting practice for the audio/video pro and a primer for the novice 

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The view from our minds eye

        Our brain has a need to make the universe orderly.  For example, a still picture can be sliced and diced into an array of small dots or pixels.  Stand back and our brain reassembles the dots as a coherent image of the original picture.  An example is a photo in a daily newspaper.
          A moving picture scene can be divided into a sequence of still pictures.  If the 'stills' are repeated fast enough our brain perceives the 'stills' as a moving picture.  This is the foundation for creating movies, animation, and television.

         Our mind’s eye also recognizes a rainbow of color from
a color additive system.  The three primary colors of light --
red, green, &  blue -- can be mixed to produce all color.

Handbook Note: A photo diode converts a stream of light
   to a steam of electrons.

The TV Camera
          As motion picture film, a TV camera divides a moving image into a sequence of still picture frames.  Similar to the newspaper photo, each still frame is divided into pixel dots. Each pixel dot of light is converted into a stream of voltage. Each pixel stream of voltage is reconverted into sequential framed stills of illuminated pixels on a television screen.
          The sequence begins as the prismatic lens assembly of a
TV camera separates light into broad rainbow paths of color.
The red, green, and blue paths are selected and targeted at a dedicated (one for each color)
pixel array of photo diodes mounted on a Charge Couple Device (CCD).

          Each of the three frames of CCD photo diode arrays are electronically scanned at
60* frames per second, top to bottom, left to right, line by line, pixel by pixel.  Each photo diode pixel of a CCD array produces
a modulating stream of electrical voltage.  The three CCD paths of voltages are a modulating analog of the original red, green, blue light.  Those voltages are ultimately reconverted to illuminated pixel framed arrays of the original sequence of still frames on a television screen.

  *Handbook Note: The C.I.E. Rec. 2020 UltraHD specification added the frame rate option of 120 fps.  
     This option has not yet been used in consumer electronic products.  It is still a commercial project.
     120fps is waiting for the full implementation of Rec 2020.

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Ed's AV Handbook.com
Batting Practice for the AV Pro and a Primer for the Novice.
Copyright 2007 Txu1-598-288   Revised 2017